Ný bók um fléttur (skófir)

Skrifað um July 1, 2016 · in Almennt · 328 Comments

fletturHörður Kristinsson: Íslenskar fléttur
392 tegundum lýst í máli og myndum
Bókaútgáfan Opna og Hið íslenska bókmenntafélag, 2016
468 bls.

Höfundi þessa pistils áskotnaðist góð gjöf fyrir fáum dögum. Sannur vinur að austan kom færandi hendi á sólstöðum með nýútkomna bók, Íslenskar fléttur eftir Hörð Kristinsson. Það er ætíð sérstök tilhlökkun, þegar út kemur bók í grasafræði, og ekki sízt, sem fjallar um efni, sem hefur verið fremur afskipt um langan aldur.

 

Fyrst er fjallað um uppbyggingu á bókinni, þá um fléttur sem lífverur, síðan um tegundargreiningu, búsvæði fléttna og nytjar og yfirlit yfir flétturíkið. Þá er komið að meginefni bókar, litmyndum, útbreiðslukortum og lýsingum á 392 tegundum. Tegundum er raðað eftir ættum. Fyrst kemur lýsing á þali, helztu einkenni á efra og neðra borði og á því, sem þar getur verið að finna, eins og rætlingum, askhirzlum, gróum, sneplum, hraufum og hnyðlum, svo að nokkuð sé nefnt. Sagt er frá vaxtarstöðum og hvernig auðveldast sé að þekkja tegundina.

 

Lýsingar eru yfirleitt hnitmiðaðar, en helzti gallinn er sá, að engin greinarskil eru í lýsingum, svo að þær eru eilítið þunglesnar.

 

Ekki er að efa, að þessar lýsingar eru unnar eftir beztu heimildum og að þeim megi treysta til fullnustu. Þó leyfi eg mér að benda á fáein atriði. Um pípuþembu (Hypogymnia tubulosa) segir: „Hún er sjaldgæf á Íslandi nema á Austurlandi frá innanverðu Fljótsdalshéraði suður í Öræfi, þar sem hún fylgir gömlu birkiskógunum. Utan þess svæðis hefur hún aðeins fundist sem slæðingur á unnu timbri.” Ekki er þetta alls kostar rétt, því að pípuþemba vex bæði í Aðaldalshrauni og við Hvaleyrarvatn á villtu birki. Sömu sögu er að segja um mosafleðu (Gyalecta ulmi); hún hefur ekki aðeins fundizt á Suðurlandi, eins og segir í bókinni, heldur einnig í Mývatnssveit og á Austfjörðum.

 

Um næfurætt (Lobariaceae) segir, að þrjár tegundir séu þekktar hérlendis, tvær af næfrum og ein af gulrendu. Síðan segir, að askhirzlur hafi ekki fundizt á neinni þeirra hér. Þetta er rangt, því að lambanæfra, sem höfundur þessa pistils fann í Lambafitjarhrauni 1971 og er eini fundarstaður til þessa, er alsett askhirzlum; í bókinni er hún nefnd hraunnæfra, en henni er ekkert lýst frekar.

 

Myndir eru til mikillar hjálpar, en þær eru æði misjafnar. Til dæmis er myndin af brekabroddi (Cladonia islandica) harla léleg. Yfirleitt má segja, að myndir af ættkvíslinni Cladonia séu miklu betri í Nordic Lichen Flora frá 2013. Þekkt er, að margar fléttur breyta litum eftir raka. Það hefði á stundum verið til bóta að birta tvær myndir af sömu tegundinni, aðra af þurru en hina af röku eintaki. Þá hefði til að mynda ekki komið fram slíkur munur á dílaskóf og flannaskóf eins og myndir á síðum 42 og 43 gefa til kynna.

 

 

Í inngangsköflum bókar kemur fram, að fyrstu drög voru samin síðla á sjöunda áratug síðustu aldar. Vitanlega er hér ekki um frumsamningu að ræða, því að til eru lýsingar á þessum tegundum á öðrum tungumálum. Sjálfsagt er að styðjast við erlendar bækur í þessu efni, og er nokkurra þeirra getið. Þó er ekki farið rétt með titil á bók eftir Tony Foucard, sem heitir Svensk skorplavsflora (ekki Svenska skorplavar). Einnig er vísað í hið merka rit Nordic Lichen Flora vol. 1-6, en mér vitanlega eru ekki komin út nema 5 hefti.

 

Í bók sem þessari er gríðarlega mikilvægt að gera glögga grein fyrir gerð og byggingu fléttna og skýra á skilmerkilegan hátt, hvernig standa skal að greiningu til tegunda. Um þetta er fjallað í tveimur köflum á fimmtán síðum með mörgum ljósmyndum. Þessir kaflar eru hvergi nærri nógu vandaðir. Það er dálítið sérstakt að tala um samsetningu lífveru, þegar átt er við byggingu og gerð, og vart er því að trúa, að nokkur maður líti á fléttur sem líkama. Þá er niðurskipan efnis ekki augljós og undirfyrirsagnir ekki í innbyrðis samræmi. Sem dæmi má nefna, að um yfirborð fléttna er fjallað í kafla um innri byggingu og líka í kafla um ytri byggingu. Hér hefði verið þarflegt að hafa miklu betra skipulag og mun fleiri skýringa-teikningar. Sérstaklega á það við um askhirzlur, en engin teikning er til dæmis af skjóðu. Á einum stað í bókinni er rætt um gróhvolf, en hvergi er minnzt á það í þessum köflum. Eðlilegra hefði verið að fjalla um snepa og hraufur undir sérstökum kafla, kynlaus æxlun.

 

Málfar er yfirleitt gott í lýsingum á tegundum. Sums staðar fær smekkur að ráða og um hann geta menn deilt. Höfundur hefur alltaf þágufall með forsetningunni ‘með’ (til dæmis: .. með dökkum hnyðlum.), þar sem sá, er hér heldur á penna, kýs þolfall í slíkum tegundalýsingum. Á hinn bóginn fer notkun sagnarinnar ‘vanta’ ekki vel. Dæmi: Um gamburskilmu segir: „Hana vantar víða á láglendi, einkum inn til dala.” Um gulkróka segir: „Þá vantar sums staðar á Suðurlandi eða eru sjaldgæfir þar, og vantar einnig á blásnum svæðum hálendisins.” – Með þessu orðalagi er gefið í skyn, að tegundirnar eigi að vaxa þarna, saman ber: Það vantar hurðir í húsið, þær koma síðar.

 

Málfar er með öðrum brag í inngangsköflum bókar. Það ber ríkan keim af talmáli fremur en ritmáli. Þar hefði víða mátt taka til hendinni. Sami hluturinn er sagður á tveimur eða þremur stöðum með mismunandi orðalagi, en kemur ekki vel heim og saman. Dæmi:

 

Á diskunum er askbeðurinn opinn og þekur efra borð disk- eða skálarlaga aldins. Eins og áður var nefnt er einn meginhluti disksins askbeðurinn, sem er staðsettur undir öllu efra borði hans.

 

Á bls. 19 er gerð grein fyrir mjóum þráðum, stoðþráðum (paraphysae). Síðan kemur á bls. 25 lýsing á geldþráðum. Ekki er víst, að allir notendur bókar átti sig á því, að hér er verið að lýsa sömu þráðunum undir tveimur ólíkum nöfnum:

 

Á milli askanna eru grannir stoðþræðir (paraphysae) sem teygja sig rétt upp fyrir efri enda askanna. Stoðþræðirnir greinast oft mikið í efri endann, eða hafa útbelgda eða knapplaga frumu í toppinn og mynda þannig samfellt þak, askþekjuna (epithecium) yfir asktoppunum. Geldþræðirnir milli askanna eru ýmist greindir í endann eða ógreindir, og stundum gildna þeir í endann eða enda í hnöttóttum hnappi. Oft eru þeir samlímdir en stundum lausir hver frá öðrum.

 

Fleiri dæmi mætti nefna um losaralegt orðalag og stirðbusalegar málsgreinir, sem þjálfaðir prófarkalesarar hefðu átt að laga. Ekki er mikið um prentvillur, en þó er sjálft orðið flétta ýmist flétta eða fléttna í eignarfalli fleirtölu. Á bls. 56 er tilvísun í mynd, sem er á síðu 17 en ekki 15 eins og þar segir, og svo má benda á, að ekki tíðkast að skáletra latnesk ættarnöfn, eins og hér er gert.

 

Umbrot og hönnun bókarinnar hefur ekki að dómi þess, sem hér ritar, tekizt sem skyldi. Á hverri síðu er lýst aðeins einni tegund, og eru því flestar síður aðeins hálfskrifaðar. Myndir (5×8 cm) hefðu að ósekju mátt vera stærri og ekki prýði að því að láta þær flæða yfir spássíu. Miklu betra hefði verið að hafa myndir af gróum við lýsingarnar, heldur en aftast í bókinni. Þá hefði þurft að leita leiða til þess að teygja meira úr greiningarlykli, því að hann er ekki árennilegur við fyrstu sýn. Það á eftir að láta reyna á hann síðar, en á einum stað er vísað til fléttu, Lobaria virens, sem er ekki í bókinni. Þá hefur ekki fengizt botn í það, hvernig stendur á að vísað er í lið 34 í lykli II frá tveimur stöðum, sem útiloka hvor annan.

 

Og svo að lokum, hefði íslenzka tegundaskráin átt að vera aftan við hina latnesku, eins og tíðkast í flestum, ef ekki öllum, slíkum bókum.

 

Hér að framan hefur ýmislegt verið tínt til, sem æskilegt hefði verið að haga á annan hátt. Það er hálfgerð skömm, að ekki skuli hafa verið vandað betur til útgáfunnar en raun er á. Engu að síður er auðvelt að mæla eindregið með bókinni, því að án alls efa mun hún reynast þeim hin gagnlegasta, sem hafa áhuga á að kynna sér þessar sérstæðu lífverur sem fléttur eru. Og hver veit nema hún eigi eftir að kveikja áhuga hjá mörgum, sem fram að þessu hafa lítið sem ekkert velt fléttum fyrir sér.

 

Hafi höfundur þökk fyrir að koma þessum fróðleik á framfæri við almenning.

 

ÁHB / 1. júlí 2016

 


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    after off the drug: 12.5 % not yet: 87.5 % Effectiveness of Bentyl *: not
    at all: 0.0 %.

  172. Dicyclomine hydrochloride is indicated for the treatment of patients with functional bowel/irritable bowel syndrome.
    DOSAGE & ADMINISTRATION SECTION Dosage must be adjusted to individual patient needs.
    2.1 Oral Dosage and Administration in Adults The recommended initial dose is 20 mg four
    times a day.

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