Timmia Hedw. – Toppmosar

Skrifað um September 29, 2014 · in Mosar · 93 Comments

Timmia Hedw. – Toppmosar

Uppréttir blaðmosar. Fremur sterklegir og stórvaxnir mosar í gulgrænum þúfum á jarðvegi eða klettum og í gjótum á rökum stöðum, oft í skugga.

Blöð eru stór, 5-10 mm á lengd, og mynda aðlægt, litlaust, gulleitt eða rauðleitt slíður að stöngli. Rif er sterklegt og endar rétt neðan við blaðodd, en gengur jafnan lítið eitt fram úr á einni sjaldgæfri tegund; oft vörtótt eða tennt á baki. Blöð tennt framan til. Frumur í blöðku litlar, ferhyrndar eða sexhyrndar, um 10 µm á breidd, gúlpnar eða vörtóttar. Frumur í slíðri rétthyrndar, langar eða striklaga, sléttar eða vörtóttar á bakhlið.

Ein tegund, T. bavarica, er tvíkynja en sjaldan með gróhirzlur; hinar eru einkynja og því aðeins örsjaldan eða aldrei með gróhirzlur.

Timmia tegundir minna um sumt á Polytrichum, Polytricastrum og Pogonatum tegundir, en þær eru allar með langræmur á efra borði blaða, svo að þær eru auðgreindar frá.

Ættkvíslarheitið Timmia Hedw. er til heiðurs þýzkum lyfjafræðingi, Joachim Christian Timm (1734-1805).

Greiningarlykill að tegundum:

1 Efstu blöð á plöntunni eru um það bil jafnlöng og öll önnur blöð ………………. 2
1 Efstu blöð á plöntunni eru greinilega lengri en önnur blöð ………….. 3

2 Slíður rauðgult eða rauðbrúnt. Plöntur einkynja …………….. T. austriaca
2 Slíður litlaust. Plöntur tvíkynja ……………………….. T. bavarica

3 Rif endar rétt neðan við blaðodd, vörtótt á baki. Blaðfrumur 10-15 µm á breidd .. T. norvegica
3 Rif nær oft lítið eitt fram úr blöðku, nær slétt á baki. Blaðfrumur 6-9 µm á breidd … T. comata
Timmia austriaca Hedw. – hagatoppur (all algengur)
Timmia bavarica Hessl. – gjótutoppur (mjög sjaldgæfur)
Timmia comata Lindb. et Arnell – skorutoppur (mjög sjaldgæfur)
Timmia norvegica J.E. Zetterst. – gullintoppur (fremur strjáll)

 

Helztu heimildir:
A.J.E. Smith, 2004: The Moss Flora of Britain and Ireland. Cambridge University Press
Ágúst H. Bjarnason, 2010: Greiningarlykill að ættkvíslum íslenzkra blaðmosa (Musci) ásamt tegundaskrá. Fjölrit Vistfræðistofu n:r 40. Reykjavík.
Bergþór Jóhannsson: Íslenskir mosar. Fjölrit Náttúrufræðistofnunar n:r 26. janúar 1995.
Elsa Nyholm, 1998: Illustrated Flora of Nordic Mosses. Fasc. 4. Copenhagen and Lund.
Tomas Hallingbäck et al.: Bladmossor: Sköldmossor-blåmossor. ArtDatabanken, Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet. Uppsala 2008.
Tomas Hallingbäck, Ingmar Holmåsen, 2008: Mossor. En fälthandbok. Interpublishing. Stockholm.

ÁHB / 29. september 2014

P.s. Höfundur hlaut styrk frá Hagþenki 2014 til ritstarfa.

 

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