Liðfætluætt – Woodsiaceae

Skrifað um April 11, 2013 · in Flóra · 129 Comments

Myndin sýnir neðra borð á liðfæætlu. Ljósm. ÁHB.

Myndin sýnir neðra borð á liðfætlu. Ljósm. ÁHB.

Liðfætluætt – Woodsiaceae

Um 15 (-31) ættkvíslir heyra undir liðfætluætt (Woodsiaceae) með samtals um 700 tegundir. Tegundirnar eru dreifðar um allan heim, en fjölbreytni þeirra er mest í tempruðu beltunum og fjallahéruðum hitabeltisins.

Blöð, gróblettir og gróhula eru mjög breytileg innan ættarinnar. Blöð eru bæði lítil og stór, og sölna á vetrum. Blaðstilkur er oft klæddur flosblöðum, sem eru himnukenndar hreisturflögur. Flest blöð eru fjöðruð; séu smáblöðin fjöðruð er blaðkan tvífjöðruð og geta síðan verið þrí- og fjórfjöðruð. Sé aðeins neðri hlutinn fjaðraður og efri hluti aðeins fjaðurskiptur er blaððið sagt hálffjaðrað. Gróbæru og grólausu blöðin eru jafnan eins (undantekning körfuburkni, ræktaður í görðum). Gróhulan er með ýmsu móti svo og lögun gróbletta. Hvoru tveggja eru því góð greiningareinkenni.

Hin síðari ár hefur þessari ætt verið skipt í nokkrar. Þær, sem koma við sögu hér á landi, eru: Woodsiaceae (liðfætluætt), Athyriaceae (fjaðraætt), Cystopteridaceae (tófugrasaætt) og Onocleaceae (körfuburknaætt). Þessari nýju skiptingu er ekki fylgt hér.

Margar tegundir ættarinnar eru vinsælar garðplöntur og meðal þeirra, sem mest eru ræktaðar.

Lykill að ættkvíslum eða tegundum:
1. Grólausu og gróbæru blöðin eins …………………………………………………………………. 2
(1. Mikill munur á grólausum og gróbærum blöðum (í görðum) ………….. körfuburkni (Matteuccia)
2. Blaðstilkur liðaður neðan við miðju; gróhula sem kögur eða hárkrans umhverfis gróblettinn …….. liðfætlur (Woodsia)
2. Blaðstilkur ekki liðaður; gróhula öðru vísi eða engin ……………………………………….. 3
3. Gróblettir meira eða minna aflangir …………….. fjöllaufungur (Athyrium filix-femina)
3. Gróblettir kringlóttir …………………………………………………………………………………….. 4
4. Gróhula vel þroskuð; vex oftast í skugga ……………………………. tófugrös (Cystopteris)
4. Gróhula engin eða mjög skammæ; vex í jarðvegi í giljum, lautum eða skóglendi ….. 5
5. Blaðka greinilega þrískipt, miklu styttri en stilkur ……..þrílaufungar (Gymnocarpium)
5. Blaðka óskipt, miklu lengri en stilkur ……. þúsundblaðarós (Athyrium distentifolium)

Smellið á viðkomandi ættkvísl:
Athyrium
Cystopteris
Gymnocarpium
Matteuccia
Woodsia

ÁHB / 11. apríl 2013

 

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