Binda mosar nitur úr andrúmslofti?

Skrifað um October 28, 2013 · in Almennt · 81 Comments

Pleurozium schreberi (hrísmosi) er algengur víða þar sem birki vex. Ljósm. ÁHB.

Pleurozium schreberi (hrísmosi) er algengur víða þar sem birki vex. Ljósm. ÁHB.


Það er kunnara en frá þurfi að segja, að skortur á nitri (köfnunarefni) hamlar víða vexti plantna. Fyrir um tíu árum komust fræðimenn við landbúnaðarháskólann í Umeå í Svíþjóð að því, að víða í skógum landsins kemur um helmingur af því nitri, sem trén taka upp, frá einni mosategund. Tegundin, sem um ræðir, er Pleurozium schreberi (hrísmosi) og er hann eitraður, enda líta engar skepnur við honum. Hann myndar því oft þykkt teppi, þar sem rotnun er jafnan hæg. Um þessa tegund hefur verið fjallað hér áður (sjá: http://ahb.is/hylocomiaceae-tildurmosaaett/).

Þetta kom mönnum mjög á óvart, því að ekki var vitað til þess, að mosar bindi nitur úr andrúmslofti. Við nánari athugun kom í ljós, að á blöðum mosans lifir blámabaktería (cyanobakteria), sem beislar nitrið. Hér var því talið, að um samhjálp tveggja tegunda væri að ræða, mosinn þiggur nitur frá bakteríunni, en hún nýtur skjóls af mosanum og fær að auki sykrur sér til lífsviðurværis.

Í fyrstu var talið, að hér væri komin skýring á eitruninni, að hún væri af völdum bakteríunnar. En annað kom fljótlega í ljós. Því fleiri bakteríur sem voru í mosanum þeim mun minni eiturefni greindust í honum.

Þá datt mönnum helzt í hug, að bakterían væri sníkill á mosanum. Á stöðum þar sem nægt nitur var til staðar myndi mosinn framleiða eiturefni til þess að losna undan bakteríunni en við skort á nitri ráði mosinn ekki við að halda bakteríunni frá sér.

Það nitur, sem blámabakterían bindur er í formi amínósýrna og prótína og kemur því rótarsveppum trjánna sérlega til góða. Á hinn bóginn er það nitur, sem menn bera á, í formi ammoníums og nítrats, og það hentar betur grösum og öðrum jurtum. Mikill munur er á þessu tvennu.

 

Þessi niturbinding blámabakteríunnar í hrísmosa hefur því sérlega mikið gildi í skógum. Nánar er hægt að lesa um þetta hér:
http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0062058
ÁHB / 28. okt. 2013

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