Mniaceae og greiningarlykill að skyldum ættum

Skrifað um November 19, 2013 · in Mosar · 383 Comments

Mnium hornum. Ljósm. ÁHB.

Mnium hornum. Ljósm. ÁHB.

Mniaceae og greiningarlykill að skyldum ættum

Í þessum pistil er aðallega fjallað um ættkvíslina Mnium. Í inngangi er þó gerð grein fyrir tengingu hennar við náskyldar ættkvíslir og birtur greiningarlykill að þeim. Í stað þess að lýsa hverri tegund nákvæmlega er látið nægja að sinni að vísa í texta og myndir, sem finna má á netinu.

Hin síðari ár hafa umtalsverðar breytingar verið gerðar á flokkun mosa. Í eina tíð var ættin Mniaceae (skænumosaætt) stór og mikil ætt. Til hennar töldust um sextán ættkvíslir og sjö þeirra teljast til íslenzku mosaflórunnar. Af þessum sjö ættkvíslum telst nú aðeins ein kvísl til Mniaceae en hinum hefur verið dreift á þrjár aðrar ættir.

Samkvæmt þeirri skiptingu, sem nú tíðkast, skiptast þessar sjö ættkvíslir niður á eftirfarandi ættir:

Mielichhoferiaceae (skartmosaætt)
Pohlia(skartmosar)
Mniaceae (skænumosaætt)
Mnium (skænumosar)
Cinclidiaceae (depilmosaætt)
Cinclidium (depilmosar)
Cyrtomnium (glærumosar)
Rhizomnium (faldmosar)
Plagiomniaceae (bleðilmosaætt)
Plagiomnium (bleðilmosar)
Pseudobryum (skjallmosar)

Af þessum ættkvíslum hefur Pohlia nokkra sérstöðu. Hún var lengstum talin til Bryaceae (hnokkmosaættar), en er nú talin til ofangreindrar ættar. Í The Moss Flora of Britain eftir A.J.E. Smith er kvíslin þó enn talin til Mniaceae.

Helzt er hætta á að rugla nokkrum Pohlia tegundum við Pseudobryum cinclidioides (skjallmosa). Þekkja má P. cinclidioides á því, að blaðfrumur eru í greinilegum skáröðum út frá rifi og veggir eru holóttir.
Áður hefur verið fjallað um Pohlia-ættkvísl. Sjá hér.

Hér fylgir lykill að ofan nefndum ættkvíslum (nema Pohlia):

1 Blöð ójöðruð …………………………………….. 2
1 Blöð jöðruð 1-6 frumuröðum ………………………… 3

2 Stöngull rauður; rætlingar aðeins neðan til á stöngli. Frumur óreglulega sexhyrndar, frumuhorn bogadregin. Dauð blöð blá … Mnium stellare
2 Stöngull brúnn; rætlingar ná oft langt upp eftir stöngli. Frumur tigullaga (eða aflangt sexhyrndar) í skástæðum röðum. Aldrei bláar … Pseudobryum cinclidioides

3 Blöð tennt ………………………………………… 4
3 Blöð heilrend ……………………………………. 6

4 Tennur paraðar; jaðar tvö eða fleiri frumulög á þykkt. Stöngull rauðleitur ……… Mnium
4 Tennur stakar; jaðar eitt frumulag á þykkt. Stöngull aldrei rauðleitur …………. 5

5 Jaðar 2-5 frumur á breidd; frumur í framhluta hringlaga eða aflangt sexhyrndar, aldrei tigullaga. Geldplöntur oft jarðlægar ….. Plagiomnium
5 Enginn eða ógreinilegur jaðar; frumur tigullaga (eða aflangt sexhyrndar) í skástæðum röðum frá rifi. Plöntur ekki jarðlægar ….. Pseudobryum cinclidioides

6 Blöð styttri en 2,5 mm, bláleit (á stundum öll svartleit), oft í einu plani ………………. Cyrtomnium hymenophylloides
6 Blöð lengri en 2,5 mm, aldrei bláleit ……………………….. 7

7 Frumur mjórri en 30 µm (stöku frumur 35 µm). Plöntur oftast rauðbrúnar. Blöð ydd eða blaðoddur úr stuttum frumum. Innri tennur samvaxnar og mynda hvolfþak yfir gróhirzluop ………. Cinclidium
7 Frumur breiðari en 30 µm. Plöntur grænar, brúnar eða rauðleitar. Blöð snubbótt eða blaðoddur úr löngum frumum. Innri tennur ekki samvaxnar …… Rhizomnium

 

Mniaceae – skænumosaætt

Aðeins ein ættkvísl tilheyrir ættinni og því er lýsing á henni látin nægja.

Mnium Hedw. – skænumosar

Um 20 tegundum hefur verið lýst innan þessarar ættkvíslar. Að minnsta kosti 13 eru fullgildar tegundir og vaxa sex hér á landi. Flestar tegundir lifa á fremur skuggsælum stöðum við mikinn loftraka.

Plöntur eru uppréttar og ógreindar, 1-10 cm á hæð. Þær eru grænar, en rauðir og brúnir litir koma oft fram á eldri eintökum, einkum á stöngli, rifi og blaðjöðrum.

Blöð eru egglaga til lensulaga, ydd og jöðruð af löngum, mjóum frumum. Jaðar er oft nokkur frumulög á þykkt og nokkrar frumuraðir á breidd. Rif er sterklegt, oft rauðleitt og tennt á baki, og endar rétt neðan við blaðodd eða gengur fram í hann. Blöð á einni tegund, M. stellare (klettaskænu), eru þó jafnan ógreinilega eða ekki jöðruð. Tennur eru paraðar en geta þó verið stakar, eins og á M. blyttii (lautaskænu) og M. stellare (klettaskænu).

Frumur í blaði eru oftast sexhyrndar eða óreglulega hyrndar. Á M. spinosum (gaddaskænu) eru frumur þó aflangar eða tvisvar sinnum lengri en breiðar.

Allar tegundir kvíslarinnar eru einkynja og eru gróhirzlur því fremur fáséðar, nema ein tegund, M. marginatum (skoruskæna). Hún ber oft gróhirzlur.

Mnium-tegundir geta líkzt Athrichum fljótt á litið, sem er líka með paraðar tennur. Á hinn bóginn eru langræmur á rifi hinnar síðarnefndu, sem er gott greiningareinkenni.

Lykill að tegundum:

1 Blaðjaðar greinilegur og tenntur. Dauð blöð aldrei blá ……………………… 2
1 Blaðjaðar ógreinilegur eða vantar, a.m.k. fremst. Jaðar ýmist tenntur eða ekki. Dauð blöð geta verið blá ………….. 6

2 Blaðgrunnur ekki eða lítið niðurhleyptur …………….. M. hornum
2 Blaðgrunnur niðurhleyptur ………………………….. 3

3 Tvíkynja. Jaðar og rif rauðlit. Blöð ydd. Neðra borð rifs oftast slétt. Oftast með gróhirzlur ………………. M. marginatum
3 Einkynja. Blöð ganga jafnt fram í odd. Neðra borð rifs tennt. Gróhirzlur sjaldséðar ……… 4

4 Neðstu blöð hreisturkennd en lengjast eftir því sem ofar dregur og verða lengri en 5 mm. Frumur í skáröðum og tvöfalt lengri en breiðar … M. spinosum
4 Efstu blöð ekki áberandi lengri en neðri blöð, styttri en 5 mm. Frumur ekki tvöfalt lengri en breiðar ……………… 5

5 Frumur óreglulega hyrndar; veggir jafnþykkir, engar hornþykkingar. Flestar frumur minni en 17 µm og jafnstórar …… M. thomsonii
5 Frumur kringlóttar, veggir þykkari í frumuhornum. Flestar frumur stærri en 17 µm, frumur við rif stærri en aðrar. Dauð blöð geta orðið bláleit. Jaðar oft ógreinilegur fremst, tennur smáar ……………………….. M. blyttii

6 Jaðar til staðar nema fremst. Blöð ýmist tennt eða ekki. Vex til fjalla í snjódældum og lautum ……… M blyttii
6 Enginn jaðar eða óþroskaður. Blöð tennt ………………………….. M. stellare

 

Mnium blyttii Bruch & Schimp. — lautaskæna
Mynd

Mnium hornum Hedw. — hornaskæna
Mynd

Mnium marginatum (Dicks.) P. Beauv. — skoruskæna
Mynd

Mnium spinosum (Voit) Schwägr. — gaddaskæna
Mynd

Mnium stellare Hedw. — klettaskæna
Mynd

Mnium thomsonii Schimp. — hnýflaskæna
Mynd

Hér má finna góðar myndir og teikningar af Mnium tegundum, nema M. blyttii: Myndir

 

Helztu heimildir:

Tomas Hallingbäck et al.: Bladmossor: Kompaktmossor-kapmossor. ArtDatabanken, Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet. Uppsala 2008
Bergþór Jóhannsson: Íslenskir mosar. Fjölrit Náttúrufræðistofnunar n:r 26. Janúar 1995
Elsa Nyholm, 1993: Illustrated Flora of Nordic Mosses. Fasc. 3. Copenhagen and Lund.
A.J.E. Smith, 2004: The Moss Flora of Britain and Ireland. Cambridge University Press
Ágúst H. Bjarnason, 2010: Greiningarlykill að ættkvíslum íslenzkra blaðmosa (Musci) ásamt tegundaskrá. Fjölrit Vistfræðistofu n:r 40. Reykjavík

ÁHB / 19. nóv. 2013

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