Mjaðjurt – Filipendula ulmaria

Skrifað um September 12, 2019 · in Flóra · 208 Comments

 

Mjaðarjurt, hvað þú ert mild og skær,
mjög er ég feginn, systir kær,
aftur að hitta þig eina stund;
atvikin banna þó langan fund:

úr kvæðinu Á Rauðsgili eftir Jón Helgason

Mjaðjurt (eða mjaðarjurt, mjaðurt og mjaðurjurt) er stórvaxin, fjölær og stórblöðótt planta af rósaætt (Rosaceae); fræðiheiti Filipendula ulmaria (L.) Maxim. – Blöðin eru á stilk, stakfjöðruð með 3 til 5 blaðpör, bilbleðlótt og þríflipótt endasmáblað; með axlarblöð. Smáblöðin eru dökkgræn á efra borði og grálóhærð á hinu neðra, gróftennt.
Blómin eru frekar lítil og sitja í stórum skúfum á loðnum greinum. Þau eru 5-deild, hvít eða oftar gulhvít. Fræflar eru margir og fáeinar frævur. Engar sykrur eru í blómunum, en skordýr sækja mjög í frjóduftið. Af blómum leggur sérkennilega og þægilega angan. Aldin eru um 2 mm stórar, gormlaga smáhnetur. Þær eru fylltar lofti og fljóta því á vatni, sem eykur verulega dreifingarhæfni tegundarinnar.
Vex oftast í eilítið rakri jörð og er algeng víða, einkum á Vesturlandi, svo og á Suðurlandi og Norðurlandi miðju. Mjaðjurt er talsvert ræktuð í görðum og hefur sums staðar slæðzt þaðan; sjaldgæf á Norðvestur-, Norðaustur- og Austurlandi. Sums staðar á Suður- og Suðvesturlandi eru stórir flákar vaxnir tegundinni og kunna sumir að álíta hana ágenga.

 

 

 

Mjög sennilegt er, að mjaðjurt hafi verið flutt til landsins sem nytjajurt. Það kann að vera, að það hafi þó ekki verið gert fyrr en á miðöldum í tengslum við mjaðargerð. Af allri plöntunni leggur sterka lykt, ekki sízt af þurrum blöðum, sem minnir á lykt af nýslegnu heyi eða garðplöntunni ilm- eða anganmöðru (Galium odoratum) og stafar af efninu kúmaríni, sem getur valdið lifrarskaða í miklu magni. Carl von Linné nefndi plöntuna ‘karört’ (kerjurt), því að mjaðarkerin voru smurð með henni að innan og notuð sem krydd í ölið.

Í bókinni Flora Lapponica eftir Carl von Linné (1737) segir svo:
„Lyktin af þessari plöntu er einna sterkust. Þess vegna er það siður bænda í Svíþjóð að strá ferskum laufum jurtarinnar á gólf í húsum sínum á helgidögum og ýmsum tyllidögum, svo að megn lyktin fyllir allt húsið og verður sumum um of. Á hinn bóginn dreifa menn grenigreinum á gólf á veturna. Þannig á náttúran sjálf til meðul, sem stuðla að þrifnaði á heimilum án nokkurs kostnaðar.“

Mjaðjurt gegndi mikilvægu hlutverki við þróun á lyfinu aspiríni. Salisýlsýra var fyrst einangruð úr blómknöppum tegundarinnar árið 1839. Seinna var efnið framleitt eitt og sér og varð vinsælt lyf við verkjum, bólgum og háum hita. Sýran olli hins vegar verkjum og sárum í maga. Þá var þróað nýtt lyf, acetylsalisýra, sem fékk nafnið aspirín, sem var myndað af orðunum acetyl og Spiraea, sem var fræðiheiti mjaðjurtar á þeim tíma.
Því var haldið fram, að aspirín væri ekki jafn skaðlegt í maga og salisýlsýra. Það kom þó á daginn, að það er litlu betra. Aspirín var þó selt í ótrúlegu magni sem verkjalyf, hitalækkandi meðal og bólguletjandi, þrátt fyrir slæmar aukaverkanir. Það er þekkt undir ýmum nöfnum, Dispril, Albyl E, Novid, Aspirín, Bamycor, Globentyl og Globoid.

Áður var álitið, að mjaðjurt hlutleysi súrt innihald í maga og kæmi í veg fyirir nábít, bruna í hálsi og magasár. Sútunarsýrur í plöntunni eru sagðar vernda slímu magans. Þá var jurtin talin góð við magakveisu, einkum í börnum. Nú er vitað, að hún vinnur á ýmsum bakteríum og kemur í veg fyrir sýkingar af völdum þeirra, eins og Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogense, Escherichia coli, Shigella flexneri, Klebsiella pneumoniae og Bacillus subtilis.

Mjaðjurt linar sársauka og er því góð fyrir þá, sem þjást af liðverkjum, þvagsýrugikt, þvagfærasýkingu, hósta og höfuðverk. Þá reynist hún vel þeim, sem eiga erfitt með svefn og hefur róandi áhrif á fólk. Jurtin hefur einnig verið notuð útvortis, einkum við sárum, sem seint vilja gróa. Þá er hún talin hreinsa húðina og lækna ýmis útbrot. Einnig var hún höfð til þess að komast að því, hver stolið hafði. Þá var plantan sett í mundlaug á jónsmessunótt um lágnættið. Sykki plantan var þjófur karl, en kona, ef hún flyti.

Vilji menn laga te af blöðum, er hæfilegt að taka 4 eða 5 teskeiðar af þurrkuðum blöðum í um 2 eða 3 dl af heitu vatni. Gott að láta það standa í um 10 mínútur og sía blöðin síðan frá. Hæfilegt er að drekka 3 eða 4 bolla á dag. Nýsprottin blöð og blóm eru góð til átu og rík af C-vítamíni. Af þeim er möndlubragð og má nota þau til að bragðbæta ýmsa smárétti og sultu. Te af blómum þykir aðgöngugóður drykkur að viðbættum sykri og sítrónusafa.

Filipendula‘: (lat.) ‚filum‘ þráður; ‚pendulus‘ hangandi. – viðurnafnið ‚ulmaria‘ blöð líkjast álmblöðum (Ulmus).

Samnefni:
Spiraea ulmaria L.

Nöfn á erlendum málum:
Enska: meadowsweet, meadsweet, queen of the meadow, meadow queen, meadow-wort, lady of the meadow, bridewort, dolloff, filipendula
Danska: Mjødurt, Almindelig Mjødurt
Norska: mjødurt, mjort, mjurt, mjøvert, maigras, benkegras, engdronning, engblom, grislegras, myrtegrass, ølgras, snjogras, jønsokgræs, slåttemainnj
Sænska: älggräs, älgört
Finnska: mesiangervo
Þýzka: Mädesüss, Spierblumen, Moor-Spierstaude, Echte Rüsterstaude, Wiesengeissbart, Wiesenkönigin
Franska: Ffeur d’ulmaire, reine des prés, ulmaire

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