Leysa gervilaufblöð orkuvandann?

Skrifað um July 23, 2012 · in Almennt · 152 Comments

Ljóstillífun

Við ljóstillífun myndast lífræn efni.

 

 

Við ljóstillífun binda grænar plöntur kol-dí-oxíð (CO2) í andrúmslofti og framleiða sykur (kolhydrat, kolvetni). Úr þessum sykri eru öll önnur lífræn efni hér á jörðu búin til. Við framleiðslu á þessum orkugæfu efnum losnar súrefni sem auka-afurð út í andrúmsloftið.

Ljóstillífun fer aðallega fram í grænkornum æðaplantna, mosa og þörunga. Talið er, að 99% lífræns efnis myndist í þessum plöntum. Að auki tillífa blágerlar í ljósi og margar bakteríur geta myndað orkugæf efni við efnatillífun.

Ljóstillífun er flókið ferli, sem fer fram í tveimur óháðum áföngum. Í fyrra ferlinu, ljósferli, örvast rafeindir í blaðgrænu og leiða til myndunar á ATP og NADPH, sem er nokkurs konar púður (eða aflvaki) í seinna ferlinu. Vetnið (H) sem hér binzt, losnar úr vatni (n·H2O) og lausbeislað súrefnið (O2) streymir út í loftið. Þetta ferli er háð sólarljósinu og fer aðeins fram í birtu. Þegar plantan býr yfir nægu púðri (ATP og NADPH), hefst seinna ferlið, myrkurferli eða kolefnisbinding. Myrkurferlið heitir svo, því að það getur farið fram í myrkri (ljós-óháð), þó að það gerist sjaldan. Þetta ferli er fólgið í því, að plantan tekur inn kol-dí-oxíð úr andrúmslofti, tengir það við efni í plöntunni og afoxar það síðan. Við afoxunina nýtist orkan úr ATP (ATP → ADP + ℗) og vetnið í NADPH (NADPH →NADP + H). Þá myndast fyrsta sykran (PGA) og úr henni er unnt að mynda öll önnur lífræn efni. (Vissulega er til eilítið annað nýmyndunarferli, sem er ekki rætt um hér.)

Þeir menn, sem áttu mestan þátt í að uppgötva þessi tvö ferli ljóstillífunar, voru bandarískir plöntulífeðlisfræðingar, Daniel I. Arnon (1910-1994) og Melvin E. Calvin (1911-1997). Margir aðrir komu líka við sögu, en þessir tveir hlutu margvíslegar viðurkenningar fyrir skerf sinn til þessara hluta; meðal annars fékk M. E. Calvin nóbels-verðlaun í efnafræði 1961.

Á sínum tíma vöktu uppgötvanir þessara manna á sjötta og sjöunda áratug síðustu aldar mikla athygli langt út fyrir raðir fræðimanna. Í heims-pressunni birtust flennistórar fyrirsagnir þess efnis, að „fæðuframboð í heiminum er leyst“, „enginn matarskortur framundan“ og fleira í þessum dúr. Þegar höfundur þessa pistils sat í landsprófi veturinn 1961/62, taldi náttúrufræðikennarinn, sómamaður í hvívetna, að brátt yrðu smíðuð tæki, sem hengu utan á húsveggjum og framleiddu sykur.

Allt fram á þennan dag hafa fræðimenn talið smíði slíks tækis hreinan hugarburð. Fyrir um áratug var því haldið fram, að hönnun þvílíks áhalds væri enn fjarstæðukenndari í ljósi nýrrar þekkingar þá en um miðbik síðustu aldar.

Nú hafa hins vegar þær fréttir borizt, að vísindamenn í Bandaríkjunum, Þýzkalandi og Svíþjóð hafa tekið höndum saman um að hanna og búa til tæki, gervi-laufblað (artificial leaf, konstgjod blad), sem líkir að sumu leyti eftir ljósferli tillífunar í laufblöðum, og nýtir sér orku, sem í sólarljósi er falin. Tilraunir þessa efnis eru skammt á veg komnar en eftir nýjustu fréttum lofa þær góðu. Það skal þó tekið fram, að það er langt í að málið sé í höfn.

 

Sjá meðal annars:

http://www.sciencemag.org/content/334/6056/643.abstract

http://www.sciencemag.org/content/334/6056/645.abstract

http://sfc.mit.edu/project4.htm

http://www.greenlaunches.com/alternative-energy/artificial_leaves_split_water_into_hydrogen_fuel_and_oxygen.php

 

 

 

 

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