Haustlitir

Skrifað um September 3, 2012 · in Almennt · 522 Comments

Laufgrænan hverfur og í ljós koma karótínefni.

Laufgrænan hverfur og í ljós koma gul karótínefni.

Eftir því sem líður á sumarið dregur smám saman úr vexti plantna. Þær taka að búa sig undir veturinn. Hér á norðurslóð verða þær að þola kulda en ekki síður þurrk til þess að lifa af. Á veturna er mestallt vatn bundið í snjó og ís, en líf hverrar frumu er háð vatni. Sé vatn ekki til staðar drepst fruman, því að það er ekki hægt að slökkva á lífinu og kveikja það að nýju. Á hinn bóginn er unnt að draga úr allri starfsemi frumna og hægja á lífsstarfseminni.

Viðarsprotar þola hart frost.

Viðarsprotar þola hart frost.

Tré og runnar verða að vera viðbúin fimbulkulda, svo að vaxtarbrum þoli að frjósa án þess að drepast. Öðru máli gegnir um flestar jurtir. Brum þeirra geymast um veturinn í jarðvegi eða sverði, og snjór skýlir þeim einnig. Af einærum tegundum lifa aðeins fræin um veturinn.

Tré taka að undirbúa sig undir vetur þegar á miðju sumri með því að safna næringarforða í rætur, stofna og brum og breyta efnum í frumunum. Með hverjum degi eykst þol þeirra. Sem dæmi má nefna, að aðalbláberjalyng þolir að ─30 gráða frost í janúar en einungis ─15 í október.

Þegar nær dregur hausti skrýðast mörg trén haustlitum, stuttu áður en laufblöðin falla af. Haustlitirnir eru ekki eins á tegundum og jafnvel síbreytilegir frá einu ári til annars. Birki, reyniviður og fjórar víðitegundir eru áberandi í íslenzkri náttúru. Þær fá allar á sig gula og rauða haustliti í ýmsum tónum. Í kaupstöðum eru margar erlendar trjátegundir, sem setja sterkan svip á götumynd bæja á haustin.

Smám saman taka trén á sig haustliti.

Smám saman taka trén á sig haustliti. Ljósm. ÁHB 2.9.2012

Af hverju stafa nú þessir haustlitir? Undir haust, skömmu fyrir lauffall, brotnar græna litarefni blaðanna, laufgrænan, í smærri efnasambönd, sem flytjast eftir leiðsluvef inn í greinar, stofn og rót og geymast þar til vors og nýtast þá. (Réttara væri að segja, að tekur fyrir nýmyndun.) Falli blöðin af áður en efnin berast inn í þá hluta plöntunnar, sem lifa um vetur, til dæmis í miklu roki, dregur verulega úr vexti næsta vor.

Við niðurbrot laufgrænunnar koma gul og rauðgul karótín efni í ljós. Þessi efni eru líkt og laufgræna bundin í himnum grænukorna en sjást ekki fyrr en laufgrænan hverfur. Rauðu litarefnin hins vegar er að finna í safabólum frumna. Þetta eru antócyanín-efni, sem ummyndast úr sykri, sérstaklega á næturnar, þegar kalt er í veðri. Því meiri sem hitamunur er á milli dags og nætur, þeim mun blæbrigðaríkari verða rauðu litirnir. Vegna þessa eru haustlitirnir í Þingvallasveit litríkari en í Reykjavík. Til eru fjölmörg antócýanín-efni í margbreytilegum litum frá fjólubláu í rósrautt.

Karótín- og antócyanín-efnin eru eingöngu gerð úr kolefni (C), vetni (H) og súrefni (O), það er frumefnum, sem nóg er af. Á hinn bóginn inniheldur laufgræna að auki nitur (köfnunarefni, N) og magnesíum (Mg), en á þeim er oft skortur, einkum nitri. Plönturnar mega því ekki við að tapa þessum efnum. Þegar laufgrænan er sundruð í smærri efnasambönd berast þau inn í varanlega hluta plöntunnar og geymast þar á góðum stað, til dæmis í rót; næsta vor eru þau endurnýtt til vaxtar.

Elri (ölur), sem nú er víða ræktað, heldur græna lit sínum fram að lauffalli. Þar þarf ekki að brjóta laufgrænu niður til að endurnýta nitrið, því að af því á það nóg, þar sem elri lifir í sambýli við niturbindandi gerla í rótum.

Gulvíðir gulnar snemma; e.t.v. vegna þess, að hann endurnýtir nitrið betur en aðrar tegundir.

Gulvíðir gulnar snemma; e.t.v. vegna þess, að hann endurnýtir nitrið betur en aðrar tegundir.

Þegar viss næringarefni hafa streymt úr blöðum inn í greinar, stofn og rót, myndast fellilag á blaðstilknum og það lokast fyrir leiðsluvefi út í blaðið. Frumur í fellilagi lamast og blaðið dettur af.

Til eru ýmsar kenningar um hver sé tilgangurinn með haustlitum plantna. Engin einhlít skýring er þó til á fyrirbrigðinu. Í sjálfu sér er guli liturinn afleiðing af niðurbroti laufgrænunnar, því að þá kemur karótínið í ljós. Rauða litarefnið, antocýaníðið, myndast úr sykri, sem hefur ekki náð að komast í geymslur í plöntunni. Myndun á því er þó ekki einskorðuð við kaldar haustnætur, því að margir grænir blómknappar verða rauðir. Ef til vill er hér um varnarviðbrögð að ræða gagnvart skordýrum. Þá hefur líka verið á það bent, að plöntur, sem þjást af næringarskorti, skarti fegurri litum en þær, sem lifa við alsnægtir. Athuganir hafa leitt í ljós, að plöntur endurnýta helzt þau frumefni, sem mestur hörgull er á í umhverfinu.

Þá eru mörg tré, sem fella ekki blöð að hausti. Greni og fura eru barrtré, en blöð þeirra, barrið, eru mjög þykk og loftaugun vel varin fyrir veðrum og vindum. Rót, stofn, greinar, brum og barr lifa veturinn og verða að þola frost. Inni í viðnum eru yztu viðaræðarnar virkar, sem flytja vatn og steinefni. Innst í berki er sáldvefur en eftir honum berast sykur og önnur lífræn efni. Vöxtur, bæði lengdarvöxtur og þvervöxtur, fer fram um vor og sumar en stöðvast fyrir lok júlí yfirleitt. Eftir það felst lífsstarfsemin einkum í því að safna forða fyrir næsta vor.

Áður en frost herjar lokast frumur viðarvefjar af og götin á sáldfrumum sáldvefjar þéttast af örvefi. Þetta kemur í veg fyrir að ísnálar myndist inni í frumunum. Á hinn bóginn frýs vatn á milli frumna, en það virðist ekki koma að sök.

Eins og sagði hér áður, eykst frostþol plantna undir haust. Meginástæðan fyrir þessu er sú, að efnasamsetning fituefna í öllum frumuhimnum breytist. Himnurnar eru gerðar úr fituefnum (þríglýceríðum), en þau innihalda fitusýrur, sem tengjast glýseróli (3 sýrur við hvert glýseról). Eftir því sem kólnar í veðri er fitusýrum í frumuhimnum skipt út. Í stað langra og ómettaðra sýrna koma stuttar fitusýrur með mörg ómettuð tengi.

Frumuhimnur eru byggðar úr þríglýseróli.

Frumuhimnur eru byggðar úr þríglýseríði.

 

Stuttu fitusýrurnar með ómettuð tengi harðna ekki í kulda eins og hinar lengri og ómettuðu. Frumuhimnurnar haldast því mjúkar og sveigjanlegar, þótt úti frjósi. Planta, sem þolir ekki ─5°C að sumri, getur lifað við allt að ─80°C, þegar komið er fram í febrúar.

Efnasamsetning fitu í frumuhimnum ræður því miklu um þol plantna í kulda. En breytingarnar eru þó fleiri. Prótín í frumum breytast líka. Kulda-þolnari prótín koma í stað sumar-prótína bæði í frumuhimnum og annars staðar í frumunum.

Nú vaknar hins vegar spurningin, hvernig skynja plöntur komu vetrar. Það er nokkuð löng saga að segja frá því. Ef til vill verður fjallað um það síðar í öðrum pistli.

Fleiri – og væntanlega litskrúðugri – myndir munu birtast, þegar lengra líður á haustið.
ÁHB / 3.9.12

Viðbót 14.9.12.

Önnur mynd var tekin af birkirunnanum hér ofar á síðunni hinn 14.9.12. Og sjá má að mun fleiri blöð hafa gulnað.

Sami birkirunni og hér ofar á síðunni.

Sami birkirunni og hér ofar á síðunni.

 

 

 

 

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