Andreaea – sótmosar

Skrifað um August 6, 2017 · in Mosar · 93 Comments


Ættkvíslin Andreaea Hedw. – sótmosar – er talin til Andreaeaceae (sótmosaættar). Þetta eru brúnar, rauðbrúnar eða svartar og uppréttar, kvíslgreindar og smáar (<2 cm) plöntur, sem vaxa í þéttum bólstrum vel festar á steinum eða í urðum. Blöð brotgjörn en ofarlega á stöngli eru þau þroskuð en neðstu blöð yfirleitt ekki. Frumur í blöðum eru með þykka veggi. Gróhirzla er upprétt og opnast með fjórum rifum á hliðum, þegar hún er þroskuð. Gróhirzlan situr ekki á tvílitna stilk heldur á einlitna sprotaenda, sem er styttri en hirzlan sjálf.


Hér á landi vaxa tvær tegundir kvíslar. Þær eru mjög auðþekktar. Önnur þeirra er mjög algeng, en hin fáséð og vex til fjalla.


Lykill að tegundum innan Andreaea:


1 Bjöð með rif ……………………… A. blyttii

1 Blöð án rifs ………………………. A. rupestris


Andreaea rupestris Hedw. – holtasóti

Plöntur smáar, 0,5-2 cm, svartar eða rauðbrúnar. Blöð eru mjög breytileg, egg- til lensulaga, heilrend, um 1mm á lengd, bogin eða einhliða sveigð til upprétt til útstæð, jafnvel baksveigð. Rif ekkert.

Frumur framarlega í blaði ferhyrndar með þykka, holótta veggi og vörtóttar á bakhlið. Frumur í blaðgrunni aflangar eða stuttar og veggir geta verið þykkari en frumuholið sjálft; þverveggir þunnir.

Andreaea rupestris (holtas´ti) er mjög algengur á steinum og auðþekktur. - Ljósm. ÁHB

Andreaea rupestris (holtasóti) er mjög algengur mosi á steinum og auðþekktur. – Ljósm. ÁHB

Plöntur tvíkynja. Oftast með gróhirzlur. Gró 20-32(-50) µm að þvermáli.


Vex á steinum, oft á opnum stöðum, þar sem næðir um, því að tegundin þolir vel þurrk. Á hinn bóginn þolir hún illa samkeppni við aðrar tegundir á klöppum, eins og Racomitrium lanuginosum (hraungambra) og fléttur, til dæmis Parmelia omphalodes (litunarskóf) og P. saxatilis (sepaskóf). Mjög algeng um land allt.

Blöð af A. rupestris til vinstri og A. blyttii til hægri. - Teikn. ÁHB.

Blað af A. rupestris til vinstri og A. blyttii til hægri. – Teikn. ÁHB.


Andreaea blytti Schimp. – fjallasóti

Plöntur brúnar til svartar, 1-2 cm á hæð. Blöð bein, upprétt eða útstæð eða einhliða sveigð, um 1,5 mm á lengd. Frá egglaga eða ferningslaga grunni ganga blöð fram í mjóan, allaga framenda, sem er um þrisvar sinnum lengri en neðri og breiði hluti blaðsins. Rif er oft ógreinilegt í neðri hluta blaðs en fyllir nærri út í efri hluta.

Frumur í framhluta blaðs jafnan ferningslaga eða kringlóttar, blaðka eitt frumulag á þykkt, sjaldan tvö. Í neðri hluta blöðku eru frumur aflangar, veggir ekki sérlega þykkir, beinir.

Plöntur einkynja en oft með gróhirzlur. Gró (10-)13-15(-20) µm að þvermáli.


Vex á steinum í snjódældum, einkum hátt til fjalla. Sjaldgæf.



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