Melablóm – Arabidopsis

Skrifað um October 27, 2015 · in Flóra · 93 Comments

Blóm á melablómi eru dæmigerð fyrir krossblómaætt. Ljósm. ÁHB.

Blóm á melablómi eru dæmigerð fyrir krossblómaætt. Ljósm. ÁHB.

Melablóm – Arabidopsis

Ættkvíslin Arabidopsis (DC.) Heynh. í krossblómaætt (Brassicaceae) hefur verið rannsökuð meira og betur en flestar aðrar kvíslir. Erfðafræðingar hafa lokið við að rafgreina allt erfðamengi í plöntu í fyrsta sinn, og var það Arabidopsis thaliana (vorskriðnablóm), sem varð fyrir valinu. Löngum hafa verið deildar meiningar um, hve margar tegundir og hverjar teljast til ættkvíslarinnar. Nú eru 9 tegundir taldar til hennar, auk 8 undirtegunda (ssp.).

Æði miklar breytingar hafa verið gerðar undanfarin ár á skipan tegunda í kringum þessa ættkvísl. Tvær tegundir í kvíslunum Cardaminopsis og Hylandra og þrjár tegundir i Arabis hafa verið fluttar í Arabidopsis, en 50 tegundir hafa verið fluttar í aðrar nýstofnaðar kvíslir, sem eru: Beringia, Crucihimalaya, Ianhedgea, Olimarabidopsis, og Pseudoarabidopsis (sjá meðal annars O’Kane and Al-Shehbaz (1997, 2003).
Allar tegundir kvíslar eru upprunnar í Evrópu, en tvær þeirra eru einnig útbreiddar í Norður-Ameríku og Asíu.
Til melablóma – Arabidopsis (DC.) Heynh. – teljast ein- eða fjölærar jurtir. Stöngull er uppréttur, jarðlægur til uppsveigður, hárlaus eða hærður, oft með stjarnhárum. Blöð eru í stofnhvirfingu en einnig dreifð á stöngli, stilkuð eða stilklaus; þau eru ósamsett, heilrend eða tennt, fjaðursepótt til fjaðurskipt.
Blómskipun er gisinn klasi. Krónublöð hvít eða rósrauð. Skálpar eru aflangir, hliðflatir.

Aðeins ein íslenzk tegund fellur inn í þennan hóp og það er melablóm, sem var áður kallað melskriðnablóm. Löngum hefur það verið talið til kvíslarinnar Cardaminopsis (C. A. Mey.) Hayek, en nú tilheyrir það kvíslinni Arabidopsis eins og áður hefur komið fram.

Á hinn bóginn eru menn ekki á eitt sáttir um það, hvert viðurnafn tegundar á að vera. Sumir telja, að íslenzka tegundin sé undirtegundin A. lyrata (L.) O’Kane & Al-Shehbaz subsp. petraea (L.) O’Kane & Al-Shehbaz; en aðrir vilja halda sig við, að þetta sé A. petraea (L.) V.I. Dorof. – Hér er hallazt að því, að fyrra nafnið sé rétt. – A. lyrata er tegund, sem vex beggja megin Atlatnsála og skiptist í fjórar undirtegundir. Undirtegundin petraea vex hér svo og annars staðar á Norðurlöndum. Í Noregi vex hún í ofur-basískum jarðvegi, sem er flestum tegundum eitraður, því að í honum er styrkur zinks og kadmíums mjög mikill. Það er ráðgáta hvernig tegundin fær þrifizt á þessum stað.

Ættkvíslarnafnið Arabidopsis er dregið af Arabis, sem er hið vísindalega nafn á skriðnablómum, og –opsis, líkur; nafnið þýðir því ‘líkur Arabis‘. Arabis: (lat.) arabs, arabískur.

 

Melablóm er algengast í melum og holtum um land allt. Ljósm. ÁHB.

Melablóm er algengast í melum og holtum um land allt. Ljósm. ÁHB.

Melablóm – Arabidopsis lyrata (L.) O’Kane & Al-Shehbaz subsp. petraea (L.) O’Kane & Al-Shehbaz

Tví- eða fjölær jurt, hærð neðst eða hárlaus. Stöngull einn eða fáeinir af sömu rót, uppréttur eða jarðlægur, oft greinóttur efst. Blöð í stofnhvirfingu á 0,5-5 cm stilk, öfug-lensulaga eða egglaga, 0,5-8,5 cm x 2-18 mm, heilrend, tennt eða lírulaga-fjaðurskert, blaðoddur snubbóttur, hærð eða hárlaus og gljáandi. Stöngulblöð á stuttum stilk eða stilklaus, öfug-lensulaga, 0,4-5 cm × 1-8 mm, minni eftir því sem ofar dregur; heilrend, smábugðótt eða tennt.
Blóm fjór-deild, mörg saman í stuttum klasa. Bikarblöð græn eða bleikleit, oft rauð í enda, himnurend, 2-4,5 mm á lengd, hærð eða hárlaus; krónublöð hvít eða sjaldan rauðbláleit, spaðalaga eða öfugegglaga, 4-9 x 1,5-2 mm (nögl um 2 mm). Skálpar uppsveigðir eða útstæðir, 1,5-4 cm × 0.8-1.8 mm. Fræ eru með lítinn himnusepa á öðrum enda.

Vex á melum, í klettum og skriðum. Mjög algengt um land allt. Blómgast í maí. 5–40 cm á hæð.

Viðurnafnið lyrata er komið úr grísku ‘lyra’, líra, einhvers konar harpa. Blaðlögunin minnir á þetta hljóðfæri. Viðurnafnið petraea er úr latínu, ‘petra’, klettur og ‘petraeus’, vex í klettum.

Samnefni:
Cardamine petraea L.
Arabidopsis petraea (L.) V.I.Dorof.
Arabidopsis petraea (L.) Kolnik & Marhold
Arabis petraea (L.) Lam.
Arabis media N. Busch
Cardaminopsis petraea (L.) Hiitonen

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Enska: Northern Rock-cress
Danska: Klippe-Sandkarse
Norska: aurskrinneblom
Sænska: strandtrav
Finnska: idänpitkäpalko
Þýzka: Felsen-Schaumkresse
Franska:

 

ÁHB / 27. október 2015

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