Lykill B – Greiningarlykill að byrkningum

Skrifað um April 25, 2013 · in Flóra · 84 Comments

Burknar setja oft sterkan svip á hraungjótur. Ljósm. ÁHB.

Burknar setja oft sterkan svip á hraungjótur. Ljósm. ÁHB.


Greiningarlykill að byrkningum (æðagróplöntum)

Sjá Inngangslykil
Nafnið byrkningar (Pteridophyta) er gamalt og spannar þær vefplöntur, sem hafa leiðsluvefi (æðavefina sáldvef og viðarvef) og fjölga sér með gróum. Til þeirra teljast um 12 þúsund tegundir, og er nærri lagi að kalla þær einu nafni æðagróplöntur.

Hin síðari ár hafa athuganir leitt í ljós, að skyldleika þeirra tegunda, sem heyra til byrkninga er öðruvísi háttað en menn töldu áður. Ekki er talið rétt að færa þá alla undir einn hatt.

Ekki verður farið nánar út í þessa skiptingu hér að sinni. Á hinn bóginn er í undirbúningi ítarleg grein um „byrkninga“ með skýringum og mörgum myndum. Meðan hún er ekki tilbúin verður að styðjast við þetta ófullkomna ágrip og tegundalýsingar, sem er að finna á vefnum. Svo verður myndum bætt inn smám saman. Sameiginlegt þessum plöntum öllum er þó það, að þeim fjölgar með gróum og hafa æðastrengi (sáld- og viðaræðar). Því mætti kalla þær æðagróplöntur einu nafni.

Í töflu hér að neðan er yfirlit yfir flokka, ættir og ættkvíslir „byrkninga“ í flóru Íslands.

LYCOPSIDA

Lycopodiaceae
Huperzia
Lycopodium
Diphasiastrum

Selaginellaceae
Selaginella

Isoëtaceae
Isoëtes

 

SPHENOPSIDA

Equisetaceae
Equisetum

FILICOPSIDA

Aspleniaceae
Asplenium

Ophioglossaceae
Botrychium
Ophioglossum

Blechnaceae
Blechnum

Woodsiaceae
Woodsia
Athyrium
Cystopteris
Gymnocarpium

Adiantaceae
Cryptogramma

Hymenophyllaceae
Hymenophyllum

Dryopteridaceae
Dryopteris
Polystichum

Polypodiaceae
Polypodium

Thelypteridaceae
Phegopteris

 

 

Greiningarlykill:

1. Stöngull marg-liðaður, greindur eða ógreindur. Smáar tennur (sem eru í raun blöð) mynda tennt slíður um stöngul. Gróhirzlur í axlíkum skipunum á stöngulenda ……… elftingaætt (Equisetaceae) – 1 ættkvísl: elftingar (Equisetum), greiningarlykill
1. Stöngull óliðaður. Blöð allt öðru vísi, mynda ekki slíður. Gróhirzlur með ýmsu móti. …………. 2

2. Blöð skiptast ekki greinilega í blöðku og blaðstilk …………………………………………. 3
2. Blöð skiptast greinilega í blöðku og blaðstilk ………………………………………………… 5

3. Vatnaplöntur. Stofnstæð, þéttstæð, ydd og striklaga blöð á hnöllóttum jarðstöngli. Gróhirzlur umluktar blaðfæti ………………. álftalauksætt (Isoëtaceae) – 1 ættkvísl: álftalaukar (Isoëtes), greiningarlykill
3. Landplöntur. Blöð hvorki stofnstæð né striklaga. Gróhirzlur stakstæðar í blaðöxlum á uppréttum stilkum eða í axlíkum skipunum efst á stöngli ……………………….. 4

4. Blöð heilrend eða lítið tennt; stönglar stinnir og trénaðir ……………. jafnaætt (Lycopodiaceae) – 3 ættkvíslir: greiningarlykill
4. Blöð þorntennt; stönglar linir og fíngerðir (minnir á mosa) ……….. mosajafnaætt (Selaginellaceae) – 1 ættkvísl: mosajafnar(Selaginella), 1 tegund: mosajafni(S. selaginoides)

5. Hvert blað skiptist í tvo hluta, annar er grólaus og hinn gróbær. Gróhirzlur í sérstökum axlíkum eða klasalíkum skipunum (hin síðarnefndu minna á vínberjaklasa) ….. naðurtunguætt (Ophioglossaceae) – 2 ættkvíslir; greiningarlykill
5. Gróhirzlur sitja á neðra borði blaða eða eru á sérstökum blöðum, sem vaxa innan um hin (tvær tegundir); kallast einu nafni burknar ………………………………….. 6

6. Blöð aðeins eitt frumulaga að þykkt; mjög sjaldgæf …………. mosaburknaætt (Hymenophyllaceae) – 1 ættkvísl: mosaburknar (Hymenophyllum), 1 tegund: mosaburkni(H. willsonii)
6. Blöð mörg frumulög að þykkt …………………………………………………….…………. 7

7. Gróbæru blöðin frábrugðin hinum grólausu …………………………………………. 8
7. Öll blöð eins ………………………………………………………………………….………………. 9

8. Blaðka kambskipt, margfalt lengri en hún er breið, þykk, skinnkennd; vex þar sem snjóþungt er eða við hveri ………………………… skollakambsætt (Blechnaceae) – 1 ættkvísl: skollakambar (Blechnum), 1 tegund: skollakambur(B. spicant)
8. Blaðka þrí-hálffjöðruð, lítið eitt lengri en hún er breið; þunn, ljósgræn; mjög sjaldgæf tegund ……………………..…… hlíðaburknaætt (Adiantaceae) – 1 ættkvísl: hlíðaburknar (Cryptogramma), 1 tegund: hlíðaburkni(C. crispa)

9. Blöð einfjöðruð ……………………………………….………………………………… 10
9. Blöð fjölfjöðruð …………………………………………………….…………………… 12

10. Gróblettir aflangir; blaðka einfjöðruð eða klofin og með þráðlaga flipa; sjaldgæfar tegundir ..…. klettaburknaætt (Aspleniaceae) – 1 ættkvísl: klettaburknar (Asplenium); greiningarlykill
10. Gróblettir kringlóttir ……………………………………………….……………….. 11

11. Blaðstilkur langur, hreisturlaus …………………… sæturótarætt (Polypodiaceae) – 1 ættkvísl: sæturót (Polypodium), 1 tegund: köldugras(P. vulgare)
11. Blaðstilkur stuttur, hreistraður ………………… stóruburknaætt (Dryopteridaceae) – 1 ættkvísl fellur undir þetta lykilatriði: skjaldburknar (Polystichum), 1 tegund: skjaldburkni(P. lonchitis)

12. Hulan vel þroskuð; gróblettir aflangir eða kringlóttir ………………………. 13
12. Hula engin eða óþroskuð; gróblettir kringlóttir ………………………………. 14

13. Hulan fest á gróstæðisfótinn undir gróblettunum, egglaga eða kögurskipt ……………..……….. liðfætluætt (Woodsiaceae) – 4 ættkvíslir; greiningarlykill
13. Hulan fest á gróstæðið ofan á gróblettunum, skjaldlaga eða nýrlaga …..……………………. ……………. stóruburknaætt (Dryopteridaceae) – 2 ættkvíslir; greiningarlykill

14. Blaðka breiðust neðst, styttri en blaðstilkur …… þríhyrnuburknaætt (Thelypteridaceae) – 1 ættkvísl: þríhyrnuburknar (Phegopteris), 1 tegund: þríhyrnuburkni(P. connectilis)
14. Blaðka mjókkar niður, mun lengri en blaðstilkur …………… liðfætluætt (Woodsiaceae) – 4 ættkvíslir; greiningarlykill

ÁHB / 25. apríl 2013

 

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