Friggjargrös – Platanthera

Skrifað um July 3, 2014 · in Flóra · 55 Comments

Blóm á friggjargrasi. Ljósm. ÁHB.

Blóm á friggjargrasi. Ljósm. ÁHB.

Friggjargrös – Platanthera Richard – teljast til brönugrasaættar (Orchidaceae) og vex aðeins ein tegund kvíslarinnar hér á landi, og því er lýsing á henni látin nægja.
Um 200 tegundir tilheyra kvíslinni og vaxa flestar í tempruðu beltum jarðar og fáar í hitabeltinu.

Nafn kvíslar er komið af grísku orðunum ‘platos’, breiður og ‘anthera’, frævill.

Friggjargras – Platanthera hyperborea (L.) Lindl.

Forðarætur eru ógreindar og sívalar. Stöngullinn er með 3–6 blöð og fara þau minnkandi og mjókkandi eftir því sem ofar dregur; neðstu blöðin (4-10 cm á lengd, að 2 cm á breidd), sem eru eitt eða tvö (sjaldan þrjú), nærri egglaga, stöngulblöð lensulaga og oddlöng.
Blómskipun er gulgrænt ax. Efsta, ytra blómhlífarblaðið er snubbótt, kringluleitt, hjálmlaga; hliðarblöð útstæð og skakkegglaga. Hliðstæðu, innri blómhlífarblöð eru lensulaga; vör heil.

Vex í margs konar gróðurlendi. Algengt um land allt. Blómgast í júní. 10–35 cm á hæð.
Tegundin vex aðeins hér og á Grænlandi. Áður var talið, að tegundin yxi einnig í N.-Ameríku og Kanada, en nú hafa þarlendar plöntur verið gerðar að sérstökum tegundum.
Ýmsir rugla tegundinni saman við hjónagras (sjá athugasemd þar).
Blómin anga lítið á daginn en frá þeim leggur sterka nellíkuilman, þegar tekur að kvölda.

Friggjargras (Platanthera hyperborea). Ljósm. ÁHB.

Friggjargras (Platanthera hyperborea). Ljósm. ÁHB.


Samnefni:

Orchis hyperborea L., O. koenigii Gunnerus, O. acuta Banks ex Pursh, Habenaria hyperborea (L.) R.Br., H. borealis Cham., H. dilatata var. borealis (Cham.) Muenscher, Gymnadenia hyperborea (L.) Link, Limnorchis hyperborea (L.) Rydb., Platanthera koenigii (Gunnerus) Lindl., P. borealis (Cham.) Rchb.f., Limnorchis borealis (Cham.) Rydb., L. brachypetala Britton & Rydb.

Nöfn á erlendum málum:
Enska: far north platanthera, northern green orchid, northern green orchis, tall leafy green orchis, tall northern green orchid
Danska: Grönlandsk gögelilje
Norska:
Sænska:
Finnska: Lumilehdokki
Þýzka:
Franska:

ÁHB / 3. júlí 2014

P.s. Höfundur hlaut styrk frá Hagþenki 2014 til ritstarfa.

Leitarorð:

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