Eyja-heilkenni meðal mosa

Skrifað um November 8, 2013 · in Mosar · 290 Comments

Ulota phyllantha (ögurmosi) hefur aldrei fundizt með gróhirzlur hér á landi en annars staðar á Norðurlöndum eru þær fremur fátíðar. Á hinn bóginn fjölgar tegundin sér á kynlausan hátt með æxliþráðum, sem myndast í blaðoddi. Ljósm. ÁHB.

Ulota phyllantha (ögurmosi) hefur aldrei fundizt með gróhirzlur hér á landi, en annars staðar á Norðurlöndum eru þær fremur fátíðar. Á hinn bóginn fjölgar tegundin sér á kynlausan hátt með æxliþráðum, sem myndast í blaðoddi. Ljósm. ÁHB.


Það er löngu þekkt meðal dýra, að þau, sem einangrast á eyjum, taka erfðafræðilegum breytingum í tímans rás. Þetta hefur verið nefnt eyja-heilkennið. Þessar breytingar kunna að vera fólgnar í verulegri umsköpun á kynæxlun lífveranna eða stærðarmun (risa- eða dvergvexti), sem er greinilegur, ef einstaklingar á eyjum og meginlöndum eru bornir saman. Fram til þessa hafa plöntur lítið verið rannsakaðar í þessu tilliti og mosar alls ekki.

Í nýlegri rannsókn, sem sjö fræðimenn tóku þátt í, þar á meðal höfundur þessa pistils, var athugað, hve sterkt þetta eyja-heilkenni er meðal mosa með því að bera þá saman á 63 stöðum, bæði á eyjum og meginlöndum. Niðurstöðurnar birtust í tímaritinu Journal of Ecology fyrr í haust.

Þar sem mosar fjölga sér með gróum, sem dreifast auðveldlega með vindi, var í fyrstu ekki álitið, að mikil hætta væri á, að þeir einöngruðust á eyjum eða næðu ekki að dreifa sér víða. En við rannsóknina kom annað á daginn.

Í ljós kom, að mosar á eyjum eru mun oftar tvíkynja en á meginlöndum, eða um helmingur tegunda á eyjum en aðeins þriðjungur á meginlöndum. Það að vera tvíkynja eykur mjög möguleika á sjálfsfrjóvgun. Þá eru karl- og kvenkynhirzlur á einum og sama einstaklingi. Frjóvgun mosa fer fram á þann veg, að sáðfruma syndir yfir til eggfrumu og því verður það að fara fram í vatni. Oftast nægir einn lítill vatnsdropi eða morgundögg.

Þá er einnig kynlaus æxlun mun algengari á eyjum. Mosum, sem einangrast á eyjum, er hættara við en öðrum að missa getu til kynæxlunar. Kynlaus æxlun er fólgin í því, að brot af mosaplöntu eða sérstakir æxliknappar eða -þræðir taka að vaxa og mynda nýjan, sjálfstæðan einstakling.

Í rannsókninni sannaðist, að mosar eru ekki undanskildir hinu afdrifaríka eyja-heilkenni eða með öðrum orðum verða þeir að taka erfðafræðilegum breytingum við það að heyja lífsbaráttu einangraðir í nýju umhverfi. Þannig má segja, að mosategundir, sem einangrast á eyjum, lenda alls ekki í þróunarlegum ógöngum eins og haldið hefur verið fram.

 

Greinina í heild má lesa hér: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/1365-2745.12136/full

ÁHB / 8. nóv. 2013

 


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