Dicranum – brúskmosar

Skrifað um January 16, 2015 · in Mosar · 427 Comments

 

Þverskurður á blaði. Fjórar, háar ræmur á baki rifs sjást greinilega. Tegundin er D. scoparium. Ljósm. ÁHB.

Þverskurður á blaði. Fjórar, háar ræmur á baki rifs sjást greinilega. Tegundin er D. scoparium. Ljósm. ÁHB.

Um það bil eitt hundrað tegundir eru skráðar í ættkvísinni Dicranum Hedwig – brúskmosum, sem tilheyrir hinni fornu ætt Dicranaceae (brúskmosaætt). Í gjörvallri Evrópu vaxa 29 tegundir, á Norðurlöndum öllum 26 en einungis ellefu tegundir hérlendis.

Flestar tegundir kvíslarinnar eru fremur stórvaxnar og grófar með löng, mjó blöð, sem mjókka smám saman fram í blaðodd. Rif er langt og einfalt. Í þverskurði sjást greinileg eitt eða oftast tvö lög af mjög þykkveggja frumum (stereid) beggja megin miðjufrumna í öllum tegundum nema einni (D. tauricum). Hornfrumur eru yfirleitt vel þroskaðar í tveimur eða fleiri lögum.

Allar tegundir kvíslar eru einkynja, sem þýðir, að það eru sérstakar kven- og karlplöntur. Þar af leiðandi eru gróhirzlur fremur sjaldséðar. Karlplöntur eru á stundum af sömu stærð og kvenplöntur, en hitt er álíka algengt, að karlplönturnar eru dvergar, sem vaxa á milli blaða kvenplantna eða í rætlingalónni, sem klæðir stöngulinn. Sumar tegundir fjölga sér kynlaust. Algengast er, að ofarlega á stöngli myndist smá sproti með óþroskuðum blöðum, sem dettur auðveldlega af móðurplöntunni og getur borizt um langan veg. Sérstaklega er þetta áberandi hjá D. bonjeanii og D. scoparium.

Lögun og gerð blaða er einnig mikilvægt greiningar-einkenni. Meðal sumra tegunda eru rök blöð bein en á öðrum eru þau sveigð í eina átt, en svo eru tegundir sem geta verið hvort tveggja eða hvorugt. Á D. fuscescens eru þurr blöð hrokkin. Þá eru blöð sumra rörlaga og á D. bonjeanii eru þau bylgjótt framan til.

Í smásjá sjást fjöldamörg greiningareinkenni, sérstaklega í þverskurði á blöðum framan til. Á tveimur tegundum eru ræmur á neðra borði rifs, annars vegar tvær lágar (D. bonjeanii) og hins vegar fjórar háar og tenntar (D. scoparium). Þá sést hvort rif er tennt á baki eða ekki og hvort blöð eru heilrend eða tennt. Frumuveggir eru oft holóttir og þarf að skoða það sérstaklega ásamt ýmsu öðru, sem kemur fram í eftirfarandi lykli.

Dicranum plöntur vaxa jafnan í lausum eða þéttum brúskum eða þúfum, gulgrænar til dökkgrænar, mattar eða glansandi. Stöngull er (0,5-)2-14(-16) cm á hæð, uppréttur, ógreindur eða kvíslgreinóttur. Rætlingar ná oft langt upp eftir stöngli. hvítir, gul- eða rauðbrúnir, sléttir eða vörtóttir. Blöð eru oftast lensulaga, sjaldan egglensulaga, kúpt neðan til, sjaldan flöt, og ganga fram í mjóan, oft rennulaga eða kjalaðan, yddan framhluta. Blöð upprétt eða einhliðasveigð; sjaldan aðlæg eða útstæð. Blaðrönd flöt, innsveigð eða innundin, heilrend til tennt framan til. Blaðendi oftast yddur en getur verið snubbóttur. Blaðka oftast eitt frumulag á þykkt, getur verið tvö út við blaðrönd.

Frumuveggir mjóir til þykkir, heilir eða holóttir. beinir eða lítillega hnúðóttir; frumur yfirleitt sléttar, geta verið gúlpnar, vörtóttar eða tenntar, einkum á bakhlið. Frumur um mitt blað og framan til stuttar eða langar, ferhyrndar, ferningslaga eða óreglulegar; neðan til í blaði eru frumur ferhyrndar til aflangar. Hornfrumur bústnar, í einu eða tveimur lögum, sjaldan fleiri, gular eða brúnar, oftast vel greinanlegar.

Stilkur er langur og uppréttur. Gróhirzlur óreglulegar og bognar, enginn eða mjög ógreinilegur háls. Lok með langa trjónu, hetta gul og skástæð. Kranstennur eru 16 að tölu, klofnar í tvo skanka.

Greiningarlykill að tegundum innan Dicranum ættkvíslar:

1 Blöð svo mjög brotgjörn, að blaðendi er brotinn af efstu blöðum. Efstu blöð á sprota upprétt og stinn. Blöð mjög mjó framan til. Ekki með þykkveggja frumur í rifi (þverskurður). Ekki holóttir frumuveggir. Hornfrumur mynda eitt lag …… D. tauricum
1 Blöð ekki brotgjörn. Blöð ekki sérlega mjó framn til ………….. 2

2 Frumur framan til í blaði aflangar með ydda enda og holótta veggi ………….. 3
2 Frumur framan til í blaði ferningslaga, ferhyrndar (sjaldan langar) með snubbótta enda, með eða án holna í veggjum. (Hjá D. spadiceum eru snubbóttar frumur oft aðeins allra fremst í blöðum) ………… 6

3 Blöð bein, rennulaga eða mest megnis rörlaga framan til. Blaðendi snubbóttur. Blöð heilrend. Kranstennur sléttar ……. D. laevidens
3 Blöð bein eða sveigð, rennulaga eða flöt framan til. Blaðendi yddur. Blöð fín- til gróftennt framan til ……….. 4

4 Tvær lágar ræmur á baki rifs framan til á blaði. Blöð bylgjótt framan til; ekki áberandi einhliðasveigð ……. D. bonjeanii
4 Að minnsta kosti fjórar ræmur, ýmist háar eða lágar, á baki rifs framan til á blaði (oft þarf að skoða nokkur blöð) ……………………….. 5

5 Margar lágar ræmur á baki rifs framan til í blaði. Í þverskurði eru blaðfrumur mun lengri langsum en þversum …….. D. majus
5 Fjórar háar ræmur á baki rifs framan til á blaði. Blöð geta verið lítillega bylgjótt framan til; ýmist upprétt eða einhliðasveigð. Í þverskurði eru blaðfrumur ferningslaga …….. D. scoparium

6 Dæld langs eftir blöðku beggja megin rifs. Í þverskurði lítur blað framan til út sem handfang á töng ………….. D. acutifolium
6 Engin dæld meðfram rifi. Í þverskurði lítur blað framan til út sem hluti af hring ……… 7

7 Blaðrönd í efri hluta blaðs tvö frumulög á þykkt. Þurr blöð meira eða minna hrokkin . ……………….. 8
7 Baðrönd í efri hluta blaðs eitt frumulag á þykkt. Þurr blöð geta verið lítillega hrokkin ……… 9

8 Frumur framan til í blaði reglulegar (ferhyrndar/ferningslaga) í skipulegum langröðum. Blaðrönd fíntennt, tennur þéttar; fremsti þriðjungur blaðs oft gróftenntur. Rif tennt á baki ……… D. fuscescens
8 Frumur framan til í blaði óreglulegar, ekki í skipulegum langröðum. Blaðrönd fíntennt, en tennur misþéttar, heilrend svæði inn á milli; fremsti þriðjungur blaðs getur verið gróftenntur. Rif slétt eða næstum slétt á baki …. D. flexicaule

9 Þúfur mjög þéttar í sér. Frumur í framhluta blaðs með mjög þykka og holulausa veggi ……. D. elongatum
9 Þúfur frekar lausar í sér. Frumur í framhluta blaðs með þunna eða ekki mjög þykka veggi ……. 10

10 Blöð standa á ská út og upp eða nærri þvert út frá stöngli. Rif mjótt. Í neðri hluta blaðs eru veggir ekki eða lítillega holóttir …………… D. angustum
10 Blöð upprétt eða lítillega útstæð. Rif sterklegt. Í neðri hluta blaðs eru veggir þétt-holóttir …… D. spadiceum

 

Dicranum Hedw.
Dicranum acutifolium (Lindb.& Arnell) C. E. O. Jensen — hlíðabrúskur

Dicranum angustum Lindb. — vætubrúskur

Dicranum bonjeanii De Not. — mýrabrúskur

Dicranum elongatum Schleich. ex Schwägr. — engjabrúskur

Dicranum flexicaule Brid. — holtabrúskur

Dicranum fuscescens Sm. — runnabrúskur

Dicranum laevidens R. S. Williams — fjallabrúskur

Dicranum majus Sm. — fagurbrúskur

Dicranum scoparium Hedw. — móabrúskur

Dicranum spadiceum J. E. Zetterst. — hagabrúskur

Dicranum tauricum Sapjegin — fauskabrúskur

Lýsingar á einstökum tegundum, teikningar og myndir koma inn síðar.
Helztu heimildir:
A.J.E. Smith, 2004: The Moss Flora of Britain and Ireland. Cambridge University Press
Ágúst H. Bjarnason, 2010: Greiningarlykill að ættkvíslum íslenzkra blaðmosa (Musci) ásamt tegundaskrá. Fjölrit Vistfræðistofu n:r 40. Reykjavík.
Bergþór Jóhannsson: Íslenskir mosar. Fjölrit Náttúrufræðistofnunar n:r 19. Nóvember 1991.
Bergþór Jóhannsson: Íslenskir mosar. Fjölrit Náttúrufræðistofnunar n:r 29. Október 1996.
Tomas Hallingbäck et al.: Bladmossor: Sköldmossor-blåmossor. ArtDatabanken, Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet. Uppsala 2008.
Tomas Hallingbäck, Ingmar Holmåsen, 2008: Mossor. En fälthandbok. Interpublishing. Stockholm.
ÁHB / 16. janúar 2015

P.s. Höfundur hlaut styrk frá Hagþenki 2014 til ritstarfa.

 

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