Conostomum – þófamosar

Skrifað um February 1, 2015 · in Mosar · 256 Comments

Ættkvíslin Conostomum Sw. ex F. Weber & D. Mohr (þófamosar) telst til Bartramiaceae (strýmosaættar) ásamt þremur öðrum kvíslum hérlendis, Philonotis (hnappmosum), Bartramia (strýmosum) og Plagiopus (bólsturmosum).

Innan kvíslar Conostomum eru sex tegundir. Hér á Norðurlöndum er aðeins ein tegund, C. tetragonum, og því er látið hjá líða að lýsa kvíslinni nánar hér.

Ættkvíslarnafnið conostomum, keiluop, keilumunnur, strýtuop: komið úr grísku, konos, keila, strýta og stoma, op, munnur, munni. Nafnið er komið til af því tennur opkransins koma saman í endann ogmynda keilu eða strýtu fyrir ofan gróhirzluopið.

 

Conostomum tetragonum (Hedwig) Lindberg – heiðaþófi

Plöntur vaxa í mjög þéttum, hvelfdum þúfum, 1-6 cm á hæð. Þær eru oft ljós-blá- eða gulgrænar, en inni í þúfum eru sprotar þéttklæddir gulbrúnni eða nærri svartri rætlingaló, sem oft nær hátt upp eftir stöngli, sem er fimmstrendur (þverskurður). Blöð eru í fimm beinum röðum á stöngli, stinn og aðlæg. Blöð mjókka smám saman frá egglaga grunni, langydd, 1-1,5 mm á lengd. Blaðrönd lítið eitt útundin á fremri helmingi, tennt framan til. Rif breitt, mjög tennt á baki, nær fram úr blöðku á efri blöðum en endar neðan við blaðenda á neðri blöðum.

Frumur eru þykkveggja, í framhluta blaðs ferhyrndar eða tigullaga (24-30 x 7-10 µm), sléttar eða vörtóttar beggja megin; í blaðgrunni eru frumur ívið breiðari, sléttar og veggir ekki jafn þykkir. Út við jaðar eru frumur eilítið mjórri. Engar sérstakar hornfrumur.

Plöntur einkynja. Stilkur 1-2 cm á lengd, gulleitur. Gróhirzla egglaga eða kringlótt, 2-2,5 mm á hæð, gulbrún, rök hirzla rákótt en skorótt, ef hún er þurr. Háls stuttur; engar barmfrumur. Opkrans einfaldur, allar kranstennur sameinaðar í endann og mynda nokkurs konar keilu. Tennur rauðbrúnar, gular á jöðrum. Gró 40-55 µm að þvermáli, með stórar vörtur en ekki háar.
Mjög auðþekkt tegund á bláleitum ljósgrænum sprotum og fimm beinum röðum blaða.
Viðurnafnið er komið úr grísku, tetragonus, ferhyrndur, fjórhliða.

Vex um nær land allt nema einna sízt á norð-austurhluta landsins. Þrífst bezt á þurrum stöðum, ekki sólbökuðum, aðallega á snjóþungum svæðum.

 

 

Helztu heimildir:
A.J.E. Smith, 2004: The Moss Flora of Britain and Ireland. Cambridge University Press
Ágúst H. Bjarnason, 2010: Greiningarlykill að ættkvíslum íslenzkra blaðmosa (Musci) ásamt tegundaskrá. Fjölrit Vistfræðistofu n:r 40. Reykjavík.
Bergþór Jóhannsson: Íslenskir mosar. Fjölrit Náttúrufræðistofnunar n:r 26. Janúar 1995.
Elsa Nyholm, 1998: Illustrated Flora of Nordic Mosses. Fasc. 4. Copenhagen and Lund.
Tomas Hallingbäck et al.: Bladmossor: Kompaktmossor-kapmossor. ArtDatabanken, Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet. Uppsala 2008.
Tomas Hallingbäck, Ingmar Holmåsen, 2008: Mossor. En fälthandbok. Interpublishing. Stockholm.

 

ÁHB / 1. febrúar 2015

P.s. Höfundur hlaut styrk frá Hagþenki 2014 til ritstarfa.

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