Skógar ─ I

Skrifað um September 11, 2012 · in Almennt · 65 Comments

Eitt fallegasta birkitré landsins er í Vaglaskógi.

Eitt fallegasta birkitré landsins er í Vaglaskógi.

Án efa eru skógar ein mesta auðlind jarðar. Þeir eru heimkynni ótal lífvera, plantna, dýra, frumvera, sveppa og baktería, og gegna mikilvægu hlutverki í hringrás efnis og orku. Þeir vernda gróðurmold og koma í veg fyrir eyðingu jarðvegs. Úr skógum fást nauðsynlegar afurðir eins og timbur, pappír, ber, sveppir og margt fleira.

Ætlunin er að birta hér öðru hverju stutta pistla um skóga jarðar, útbreiðslu, nýtingu, umhirðu, afurðir og hvað eina er við kemur skógum. Engin regla verður á birtingu þessara greinastúfa og ekki er fyrirfram ákveðið, hvað tekið verður fyrir hverju sinni. Því má eins gera ráð fyrir, að hér verði um sundurlausa þanka að ræða.

Um það bil þriðjungur af landi jarðar er klæddur skógi eða um 4 þúsund milljónir hektara. Sé honum deilt niður á hvern íbúa jarðar gerir það um 0,62 hektara á mann. En slíku er ekki til að dreifa, því að sjö lönd munu vera skóglaus með öllu og í 57 löndum þekur skógur minna en 10% af flatarmáli lands. Í 64 löndum með samtals 2 þúsund milljónir íbúa er aðeins 0,1 hektari skóglendis á hvern mann.

Stærstu skógar heims eru í Rússlandi og Brasilíu. Um þriðjungur alls skóglendis er innan landamæra þessara landa. En um 2/3 alls skóglendis jarðar er að finna í aðeins 10 löndum.

Á meðfylgjandi skífuriti er sýnd skipting skóglendis meðal tíu stærstu skógarlanda jarðar.

Myndin sýnir skiptingu skóglendis eftir löndum. Tölurnar eru í milljónum hektara.

Myndin sýnir skiptingu skóglendis eftir löndum. Tölurnar eru í milljónum hektara.

 

ÁHB 11.9.12.

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