Köldugras – Polypodium vulgare

Skrifað um March 25, 2013 · in Flóra · 125 Comments

Köldugras eða sæturót. Til hægri er sýnd gróhirzla. Teikn. ÁHB.

Köldugras eða sæturót. Til hægri er sýnd gróhirzla. Teikn. ÁHB.

Sæturótarætt – Polypodiaceae
Sæturótarætt er oft skipt niður í margar undirættir. Til hennar teljast tæplega 60 ættkvíslir með samtals um 1200 tegundir frá meðalstórum til smárra burkna. Margar tegundir eru ásætur. Fyrrum var þessi ætt miklu mun stærri með nálægt 7000 tegundir, en hefur verið klofin niður hin síðari ár. Ættin mun þó enn vera tegundaríkust allra burknaætta.

Sæturætur – Polypodium L.
Til ættkvíslarinnar teljast 75-100 tegundir. Margar þeirra eru ásætur, aðallega í hitabeltinu. Ættkvíslin var áður mun stærri, en fjölmargar tegundir hafa verið fluttar í nýjar kvíslir eins og til dæmis Campyloneurum, Cyathea, Microgramma, Nephrolepis, Neurodium, Pecluma, Phlebodium og Pleopeltis.

Köldugras – Polypodium vulgare L. –
Jarðstöngull er skriðull með greinileg ör eftir gamla blaðstilka. Blöð eru þykk og skinnkennd; þau lifa veturinn en visna að vori þegar ný blöð taka að spretta. Stilkur jafnan lítið eitt styttri en blaðka, flosulaus. Blaðka er allbreytileg, lensu- eða sporlaga til aflöng, gulgræn (ljósari á neðra borði), aflöng og einfjöðruð. Bleðlar eru misstæðir, aflangir, nærri heilrendir og eru hinir neðstu lengstir en styttast eftir því sem ofar dregur og endar í þríhyrndum bleðli. Blöð eru sérlega þurrkþolin og rúllast upp við langvarandi þurrka. Gróblettir í tveimur röðum, fyrst sporöskjulaga en verða síðan kringlóttir; engin gróhula.

5-30 cm á hæð. Vex í hraunum urðum og klettum. Algengt á SA, víða á SV og V, sjaldgæfara annars staðar.

Í gömlum lækningabókum er köldugras sagt gott við ýmsum kvensjúkdómum, og að auki bæði svita- og þvagaukandi og slímlosandi. Hefur verið notað í hóstasaft. Jarðstöngullinn er sætur á bragðið, með lakkrískeimi. Osladin er sætuefni, sem finnst í jarðstönglinum og er miklu mun sætara en reyrsykur.

Nafnið köldugras er komið til af því, að seyði af rótinni er sagt gott við upphleypandi giktarverkjum, sem fólk almennt kallar köldu. Þá er það almennt notað við alls konar innanmeinum, en þó einkum við bólgum í meltingarfærum og lifur. Gömul nöfn á tegundinni eru skarfsæta, skarpsæturót, sæturót (ættkvíslarheiti) og margfætla.

Enska: common polypody, rock polypod, brake root, female fern, adder’s fern, fern-root, oak fern, rock brake, sweet fern, wall fern
Danska: Almindelig Engelsød
Sænska: stensöta
Norska: sisselrot
Finnska: kallioimarre
Þýzka: Gewöhnlicher Tüpfelfarn, Engelsüss, Baumfarn, Engelwurz, Rossfarn, Steinfarn, Steinlaxe, Süsswurzel.
Franska: polypode (commun), polypode de chêne, fougère réglisse.

ÁHB / 25. marz 2013

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